Supporting Interactive Exploration of Linked Heterogeneous Datasets for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate
Sungwon Lee, Boeun Kim, Bongshin Lee, Bohyoung Kim, Bohyung Han, Nina K. Anderson, Richard A. Bruun, Stephen Shusterman, and Jinwook Seo / 2012
Children with unilateral cleft lip/palate (UCLP) are at an increased risk for bullying and teasing in school, being judged by teachers and others as having lower intelligence, less athletic ability, and having traits such as being angry all the time and dishonest. The UCLP patients' own parents may look negatively upon them, and have a greater tendency to sexually or physically abuse them than non-UCLP children. We obtained a set of facial measurements from each of 46 UCLP patient images. Based on preliminary data analyses, we have determined that the teachers differed from medical/dental professionals, with teachers rating most of the faces as LESS severe, than the medical/dental judges, particularly orthodontists, who were the most critical overall in their ratings of the patient images.
However, the information has too many data and also is too hard to understand it in its original format with only numbers and texts. To visualize the data, we designed a new visual interface entitled FaceReview. By using FaceReview, users can determine what facial measures are used to categorize the UCLP patients into groups having none, mild, moderate, severe degrees of facial disfigurement. It is also possible for the users to determine whether, for example, teachers look at different parts of the face than orthodontists, plastic surgeons or dentists.
The clinical significance of this type of research is valuable for the following reasons: (1) Communication Facilitation, (2) Assessment of Treatment Need, (3) Evaluation of Treatment Outcome and Clinical Competence, (4) Comparison of Surgical Outcomes Across Treatment Protocols (High vs. Low Volume Centers) and (5) Allocation of Insurance and other Financial Resources.
Ultimately, the results of this project and subsequent studies using additional stimulus images and judges, will be used in the development of a standardized scaling system for classifying severity of facial disfigurement associated with UCLP following the primary repair and for the development of an educational package (CD's, video, readings, tests) describing the etiology and biopsychosocial issues related to UCCLP for use in professional development programs such as the National Education Association's (NEA) National Bullying Awareness Campaign.
This work was supported in part by the BK21 Project in 2011 and by Basic Science Research Program through NRF of Korea funded by the MEST (No. 2011-0005566 and No. 2011-0003631). The ICT at Seoul National University provides research facilities for this study.